This will help him learn life’s lessons and continue to shape his brain’s development.

Talking about your own opinions and feelings calmly can also help to keep the lines of communication open, and model positive ways of relating to others.

Establish clear and fair family rules Stating clear family rules about behaviour, communication and socialising will help your child understand where the limits are and what you expect.

But it’s common for parents and teenagers to disagree about independence – how much a young person should have and when.

It’s natural to worry that if you give your child too much independence too early, your child might get involved in risky behaviour. But your child needs to make some mistakes, to explore and have new experiences.

It’s OK to admit you’re having difficulties – seek help if you need it.

Speak with your GP, your child’s school counsellor or call Parentline on 1300 301 300.

Show your child lots of love and support Your love and support are essential for your child’s self-esteem.

Young people who feel good about themselves often have more confidence to discover who they are and what they want to do with their lives.

But be prepared for the fact that her views might differ from yours.

You can use this situation as a chance to talk about how people often have different perspectives.

Your child might not always want physical affection from you.