The kind of radiation discussed in this document is called because it can produce charged particles (ions) in matter. Unstable atoms differ from stable atoms because unstable atoms have an excess of energy or mass or both.Radiation can also be produced by high-voltage devices (e.g., x-ray machines). The kinds of radiation are electromagnetic (like light) and particulate (i.e., mass given off with the energy of motion).

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Radiometric dating is also used to date archaeological materials, including ancient artifacts.

Radiometric dating methods are used to establish the geological time scale.

Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a way to find out how old something is.

The method compares the amount of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope and its decay products, in samples. It is the main way to learn the age of rocks and other geological features, including the age of the Earth itself.

Adaptive radiations are best exemplified in closely related groups that have evolved in a relatively short time.

A striking example is the radiation, beginning in the Paleogene Period (beginning 65.5 million years ago), of basal mammalian stock into forms adapted to running, leaping, climbing, swimming, and flying.

All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements, each with its own atomic number, indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus.

Elements exist in different isotopes, with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

It may be used to date a wide range of natural and man-made materials.

Fossils may be dated by taking samples of rocks from above and below the fossil's original position.

A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. That is, at some point in time, an atom of such a nuclide will spontaneously change into a different nuclide by radioactive decay.