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There was no need for any other term, until the rise of an ideological and political interpretation of Islam challenged scholars and commentators to come up with an alternative, to distinguish Islam as modern ideology from Islam as a faith...To all intents and purposes, Islamic fundamentalism and Islamism have become synonyms in contemporary American usage.The Council on American–Islamic Relations complained in 2013 that the Associated Press's definition of "Islamist"—a "supporter of government in accord with the laws of Islam [and] who view the Quran as a political model"—had become a pejorative shorthand for "Muslims we don't like." The AP Stylebook entry for Islamist now reads as follows: "An advocate or supporter of a political movement that favors reordering government and society in accordance with laws prescribed by Islam.
In Pakistan, the festival will start on Saturday 2 September. Eid al-Adha is marked by a four or five day public holiday in most Muslim countries - although in Turkey and Qatar celebrations last for 10 days and in Saudi Arabia a whole fortnight.
A three day holiday is being held in Ghana, Nigeria and Uganda.
In Western media usage the term tends to refer to groups who aim to establish a sharia-based Islamic state, often with implication of violent tactics and human rights violations, and has acquired connotations of political extremism.
Different currents of Islamist thought include advocating a "revolutionary" strategy of Islamizing society through exercise of state power, and alternately a "reformist" strategy to re-Islamizing society through grass-roots social and political activism.
In the Gregorian system, the date can vary over a period of 11 days.
In 2017 the celebration begins on Friday 1 September, although in Muslim majority countries the public holiday often starts the day before.Graham Fuller has argued for a broader notion of Islamism as a form of identity politics, involving "support for [Muslim] identity, authenticity, broader regionalism, revivalism, [and] revitalization of the community." Some Islamist thinkers emphasize peaceful political processes.Others, Sayyid Qutb in particular, called for violence, and his followers are generally considered Islamic extremists, although Qutb denounced the killing of innocents.—and thus is not a united movement.Eid al-Fitr, which this year fell in June, is held to celebrate the end of the month-long fasting period of Ramadan.Like other Islamic celebrations, Eid al-Adha by the lunar calendar, and always begins on the 10th day of Dhu al-Hijjah - known as Arafat Day, or the climax of the annual Hajj pilgrimage period.Olivier Roy argues that "Sunni pan-Islamism underwent a remarkable shift in the second half of the 20th century" when the Muslim Brotherhood movement and its focus on Islamisation of pan-Arabism was eclipsed by the Salafi movement with its emphasis on "sharia rather than the building of Islamic institutions," and rejection of Shia Islam. By the turn of the twentieth century it had begun to be displaced by the shorter and purely Arabic term "Islam" and by 1938, when Orientalist scholars completed The Encyclopaedia of Islam, seems to have virtually disappeared from English usage.