Their study was a replication of an earlier one completed in 2000 by Lawrence Lerner and the Thomas B.

Fordham Foundation (Lerner in Good science, bad science: teaching evolution in the states. Mead and Mates indicated that, on average, the quality of the standards had increased over the decade between studies.

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In addition, as of the conducting of this review, September 28, 2016, 17 states have adopted the standards: Arkansas (so far only for middle school), California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, and West Virginia, along with the District of Columbia (D. As a result, the NGSS will very likely have a major impact on the teaching of evolution in this country.

The idea for the NGSS began in 2009, when a commission formed by the Carnegie Foundation concluded that “the nation’s capacity to innovate for economic growth and the ability of American workers to thrive in the modern workforce depend on a broad foundation of math and science learning” (NGSS this was managed by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences and funded by the Carnegie Foundation.

When revising its math and language arts standards in 2013, for example, the Florida Department of Education welcomed public input through public meetings, a website with a comment form included, and an e-mail link for comments and questions (Florida Department of Education When it comes to middle school evolution standards, the NGSS are a great improvement over the science standards of several individual states.

Therefore, it is important to discuss their inception and an explanation of how they are organized.

The focus of this study is a state-by-state comparison of middle school science standards on evolution in the United States.

In 2009, Louise Mead and Anton Mates reviewed the high school science standards on evolution, giving each state a grade based on multiple factors including the number of times the word “evolution” is mentioned, the types of evolution covered, and the inclusion of creationist jargon (Mead and Mates in Evol Educ Outreach 9, ).

The NRC put together a committee of 18 practicing scientists, Nobel laureates, cognitive scientists, science education researchers, and science education standards experts.

The NRC also used design teams of scientists and education specialists in the fields of physical science, life science, earth/space science, and engineering to develop the , they used the extensive research found in the fields of science teaching and learning and almost two decades of efforts to define the most foundational knowledge and skills for K-12 science and engineering.

In addition, standards provide school districts with a framework for the organization of course content and instruction.