Therefore, it is quite rare for present day people to have a high percentage of origins from this cluster, even with documented family lineage.

Testers within this cluster may have a percentage of genetic relatedness lower than expected.

Water control and irrigation of crops are seen as early as 700 CE in some Hohokam sites, which lead to bountiful harvests.

This population is now scattered across the world with the largest concentrations in Israel and the United States and represents a unique mix of Middle Eastern and European genetic elements, which crystallized within the last 2,000 years.

The North and Central America cluster consists of present day Native American populations that span from southeastern Alaska down through the western half of the United States and end at the top of Nicaragua.

Closely connected to clusters in Southern Europe, this cluster also has a strong relationship to the Middle East.

Like the Ashkenazi cluster, it brings together diverse genetic threads and exhibits similarities and affinities to southern European and Fertile Crescent populations.

Early populations in this cluster were also shaped by the extreme variation in environment and local resources.

These variations resulted in cultural and linguistic diversity that defines early and present day populations in this region.

Five hundred years ago, this population was scattered due to their forced expulsions from Spain and Portugal.

Fleeing to the Ottoman Empire, Morocco, and a few locales in northern Europe, the Sephardic population maintained their genetic distinctiveness while they fused with the local cultures.

Judaism is a religion, but the Jewish people are also a nation.